Wreathed Hornbill (Aceros undulatus)
Hornbills are large, black or brown, and white, mainly arboreal birds, with long, heavy bills. Many species have large protuberant casques on top of the bill which may be gaudily coloured. Hornbills are found throughout Africa and tropical Asia, and throughout Indonesia to New Guinea. They eat fruit and insects and have harsh, penetrating calls.
The nesting habits of the family are interesting. The incubating females are usually sealed into tree hole nests with mud, leaving only a small aperture through which food can be passed by the male. When the young are hatched the female breaks out but reseals the nest entrance again until the young are ready to leave. Ten species of hornbill occur in Sumatra, eight in Borneo, but only three are found in Java.
Description: Large (100cm) white-tailed hornbill. Both sexes have black back, wings, and belly, but male has creamy head with reddish plume from the nape, and naked yellow gular pouch with a distinct black stripe. Female has black head and neck, and blue gular pouch.
Iris-red; bill-yellow with small corrugated casque; feet-black.
Voice: A repeated, short, hoarse, dog-like double yelp koe-guk.
Range: E India, SW China, SE Asia, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, and Bali.
Distribution and status: In Borneo and Sumatra this is a fairly common bird of lowland and hill forest, up to 2000 m. In Java and Bali it is rather local.
Habits: Flies in pairs or small flocks over the forest with heavy wing-beats, seeking fruiting trees. Often mixes at feeding trees with other hornbills.